WHAT IS ARDUINO?
By using Ardunio, You can read the signals from various sensors, flash the light, start the engine; In short, you can make all electronic applications you can think of.
Basically, if there is something that is in any way controlled by electricity, the Arduino can interface with it by adjusting Ardunio. And even if it is not controlled by electricity, you can most likely still use things which are (like motors and electromagnets), to interface with it.
Different Types of Arduinos
Arduino UNO : The most common version of Arduino is the Arduino Uno. It has Atmega 328 microcontroller, USB connection port, power regulator and 16 Mhz crystal components. Thanks to the serial-to-USB converter on it, it can both be programmed and communicate with the computer via the serial port. The card can be fed via USB and adapter input.
Arduino MEGA: It has an Atmega 2560 microcontroller. It has 54 digital input-output pins, 16 analog inputs, 4 hardware serial ports and a 16 mhz crystal oscillator. It can be fed both via USB and DC adapter. In general, Ardunio Mega has the same features as Arduno UNO, Ardunio Mega mostly preferred in larger projects since it has more pins compared to Ardunio Uno.
Ardunio Lilypad: The LilyPad was designed for wearable and e-textile applications. Lilypad was designed to be sewn on dresses and fabric. Thus, it can be used in interesting projects that can be designed as wearable. It has Atmega 168V microcontroller.
Ardunio Mini: It is an Arduino model designed to be operated on a breadboard or integrated into another design. It has Atmega 168 or Atmega 328 model microcontroller. It is especially ideal for applications where small size is important.